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Renewable sources in the Italian territory, to map them, tell them and comment on them every year, Legambiente arrives, giving the country its awaited and prepared look. Leafing through the Renewable Municipalities Report it is interesting to observe the novelties of 2015, the year of Expo, which also saw themes related to Renewable sources in the Italian territory, but also years of other changes from the point of view of incentives and laws.
The Report was produced by processing information and data obtained through a questionnaire sent to the Municipalities, crossing the answers with the GSE data, with numbers and reports coming from TERNA, Enea, Itabia, Fiper, ANEV and with information from Regions, Provinces and companies.
Before entering a forest of lights and shadows, sweet or poisonous fruits, a good news on the panorama of renewable sources in the Italian territory: in ten years the number of municipalities in which at least one renewable source plant is installed has gone from 356 to 8047. If these numbers don't tell you anything, understand it this way: in all municipalities there is today at least one plant.
It will be interesting to see how each has organized itself by articulating their own strengths and ideas in the use of different sources, but attention has increased on renewable sources in the Italian territory. Even focusing attention on the last year, even if some shadows have appeared, we can continue to say that the diffusion has increased for all sources, certainly we cannot sit back and watch or rely on the force of inertia.
Indeed, as Legambiente suggests in its valuable report, there are important measures to be taken to remain at reasonable and European levels as regards renewable sources in the Italian territory.
Renewable sources in the Italian territory: what are they
From the Solar photovoltaic to the thermal one, from hydroelectric to high and low enthalpy geothermal, to a biomass and biogas integrated with networks of district heating and heat pumps. The panorama of renewable sources in the Italian territory it is varied, rich and to be preserved and made to grow in quantity and quality.
To do this, you need to know the current situation in order to have a starting point and understand how to set up actions that fit the territory and do not drop from above with the risk of failure. So here's what the renewable sources in the Italian territory, starting from the most used.
THE There are 8,047 solar municipalities, of the solar photovoltaic 6,882 but the number I like is 1,420: these are the municipalities where thanks to this technology the production of electricity exceeds the needs of resident families. At the end of 2015, plants corresponding to a production of 18,960 MW were installed, in particular 305.3 new MW, dated 2015. Important figure because recent, but not only: they are plants built without direct incentives, under the Exchange, On-Site or Dedicated Withdrawal regime. Often they are medium or small in size and on roofs.
THE There are 850 wind power municipalities, the total installed power is 9,270 MW, 474.4 MW in 2015 and 323 municipalities that we can consider autonomous from an electrical point of view thanks to wind power. Mostly, by observing renewable sources in the Italian territory for wind power, the presence of large, medium and micro-sized plants emerges throughout the country. For what concern mini hydroelectric, there are 1,275 municipalities, the plants installed in total reach a capacity capable of satisfying the electricity needs of 2 million families.
The same satisfied requirement emerges for the geothermal which in the "balance sheet" on renewable sources in the Italian territory counts 535. It is curious to observe that the production for geothermal plants is historically located between the provinces of Siena, Grosseto and Pisa but between the renewable sources in the Italian territory this represents an important opportunity for the whole country.
Continuing to measure renewable sources in the Italian territory we find i Municipalities of bioenergy which are currently 3,137, this category includes those equipped with biomass plants which, taken together, made it possible in 2015 to meet the electricity needs of over 7.7 million families.
Renewable sources in the Italian territory: the Legambiente Renewable Municipalities project
To take the trouble to map green energy and innovation in Italian energy networks for nine years now is Legambiente which photographs the development of renewable sources in the Italian territory with a watchful eye on the changes taking place.
Today the renewable sources cover over 32% of the national electricity needs and 15% overall thanks to a mix of 700 thousand plants from renewable sources spread in 100% of Italian municipalities. However, the number of renewable municipalities is never enough, so many small drops that can make Italy a green, virtuous ocean.
So, with regard to renewables, I renew the invitation to participate in theLegambiente initiative by visiting the dedicated website Renewable Municipalities. It is easy and free. And it is interesting and necessary. There is also the possibility of competing in the European championship based on the development of renewables and on efficiency and mobility policies.
The growth of renewable sources in Italy
With the growth of renewable sources in the Italian territory thermoelectric production is being reduced: this is good news because those are the most polluting and damaging plants for the climate and the environment. In ten years there has been a reduction of 30%. Imports from abroad of fossil sources, in particular oil and gas, have fallen: in 10 years for gas there is a -17.7%, for oil a -38%.
Another “positive” decline linked to the growth of renewable sources in the Italian territory is that of CO2 emissions: from 1990 to 2014 - data from Ispra - they decreased by 19.8%. This brings both environmental and economic advantages and, speaking of savings, thanks also to the production of solar and wind power, the cost of energy in the electricity market is reduced. The PUN (national unit price of energy) has dropped even in 2015, despite everything.
Watch the growth renewable sources in the Italian territory it makes me want, I hope, to invest in this sector and our minds are on the issue of employment. In a lasting perspective of energy innovation, according to Legambiente, we can hope for 200 thousand units employed in the sector of renewable sources in the Italian territory. For the sector ofefficiency and requalification in building another 600 thousand.
After all this good news and great hopes, let's get back down to earth and take note that investments in renewable sources in the Italian territory they are not good at all. In 2015, installations increased at a much slower rate than in the past, Italy is still among the leading countries in the world as installations, but is disappearing from international scene and a sudden wing flap is required. A change of policies, a strategy absent today.
Today there are no guidelines for projects on renewable sources in the Italian territory and this hinders the country, even in its most virtuous local realities. Let's think about it, and in the meantime let's observe the growth of renewable sources in the Italian territory reflecting: these are good numbers, let's not throw away the effort made so far to get them.
Renewable Sources: diffusion in the Italian regions
Hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and bioenergy: how many MW produced and where. Here is an excellent description of the distribution of renewable sources in Italy that is easily readable and leaves you free to search for your region, to "spy on and envy" the others, to get indignant and expect more. To you the fun of finding the particularities not taken for granted as well as finding confirmation of what "well, we knew". I dug up numbers that I never would have thought of. You?
100% renewable municipalities
Among the 39 100% renewable municipalities indicated in Legambiente report relating to renewable sources in the Italian territory we are not surprised to find many located in South Tyrol. A bit of an "easy win" to bet on. What I found less obvious and therefore more to accentuate is the presence not only of "Small" Municipalities.
Important results were achieved in a short time thanks to the "new" renewable sources also in municipalities with over 100 thousand inhabitants and, whether they are among the top 39 or less, there are 7 in which already today more electricity is produced than that consumed by resident families. For example Parma and Ravenna boast a strong “solar photovoltaic” contribution, even Foggia is not doing badly.
The Italian municipalities that produce more electricity than resident families consume are 2,660, while 44 are those that greatly exceed their thermal needs thanks to district heating systems connected to biomass or geothermal plants.
On the electrical side, success is the result of a mix of systems other than renewables, on the thermal side, the merit is often of biomass and geothermal plants connected to district heating networks. In addition to the 100% renewable municipalities both for thermal and electrical components, there are those that I hope to be able to tell you as such soon.
They are the 613 that, thanks to renewables, produce from 99 to 70% of electricity compared to domestic needs, and, at the end, the 614 that have a variable percentage between 70 and 50%. There remain the 1,766 that have to wake up because with renewable sources they produce only 50 to 20% of eelectricity necessary for family needs.
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